What is a Government Shutdown? What Will Happen?

Construction cones stand along the sidewalk at the U.S. Capitol on Jan. 19, 2018. (AP /Susan Walsh)

David Childs, Ph.D.
Northern Kentucky University

Introduction
When there is a lot of bi-partisan discord between the executive and legislative branches surrounding passing end of year spending legislation we often begin to hear about the possibility of a government shutdown. It is important that American citizens understand what this means. What makes a democracy successful is when citizens understand their rights and the various processes that take place in the government as well as their civic duties. An important component in operating a well functioning democracy is an educated citizenry.

When Does a Government Shutdown Occur?
A government shutdown takes place in the United States when nonessential offices of the government close due to a lack of approval on the federal budget for the upcoming fiscal year. More specifically, when congress fails to pass legislation or the President does not sign an appropriations bill that would fund certain federal government operations and agencies a shutdown occurs. Sometimes the case is that the opposing party in Congress disagrees with the president and refuses to pass the spending legislation. For example, republican senators may refuse to vote for certain spending legislation that a democratic president wants to pass, this would trigger a government shutdown. NOTE: An appropriations bill is legislation in the United States Congress to appropriate federal funds to specific federal government departments, agencies and programs. The money provides funding for operations, personnel, equipment and activities.  

If Congress passes all of the spending bills connected to the federal budget, a shutdown can be circumvented. However, if they cannot come to an agreement a government shutdown will occur. A shutdown will close many of the federally funded operations, stopping the work for federal employees that are deemed non-essential. Some non-essential organizations can stay open for a short amount of time running on cash reserves. However, when the reserve funds runs out the organizations close. This sort of stalemate continues until an agreement is reached within Congress or with the President and a budget bill is passed. In the recent shutdown of late fall 2018, President Donald Trump asked for federal funding to build a wall along the Mexican border, but Congress has not been able to pass legislation to support it, this triggered a government shutdown.

Government Shutdowns Have Happened Before
A shutdown is not new to the federal government, but it’s unusual for them to happen when one party controls the White House and Congress; this is the case for the Trump administration. In fact, because of sharp disagreements between both parties on spending, a shutdown has happened three times during his nearly two years in office. The recent shutdown has caused federal employees to be furloughed. This has not happened since 1974.

What are the Effects of a Government Shutdown?
Government shutdowns can affect many of the everyday government processing functions, including recruitment of law enforcement officers and the processing of social security cards and passport applications. Also, some functions of banks are affected by the shutdown, even though they are not government-controlled. Financial institutions cannot access information needed such as income tax records which may impact their ability to process new small business loan applications. Another possible affect might be that, payments from government sources to recipients of veterans’ benefits or unemployment insurance may be temporarily put on hold. In the fall 2018 shutdown triggered by the Trump administration more than 380,000 federal workers have been put on furlough and another 420,000 employees were forced to work without pay.

There can also be indirect effects of a government shutdown. It could impact other sectors of society besides the government, such as the business sector. In the fall 2018 shutdown, more than 380,000 federal workers have been put on furlough and another 420,000 employees were forced to work without pay. When federal workers are on furlough and as a result not spending, this could cause a loss of revenue within the businesses they normally would have patronized. The overall cost and impact on the economy as a result of a furlough can be devastating. Some shutdowns in the past have cost the economy as much as $20 billion, however some may not be as costly. Offices that do not receive funding from Congress can continue operating during a shutdown such as the Federal Reserve, the Post Office, active prison guards, police and firefighters, border patrol agents, air traffic control and active military.

The average US citizen may not understand the ends and outs of a government shutdown; many people may not realize what it means at all. The social studies classroom is a great way to educate students on this aspect of the American government. Below some teacher resources are provided to help social studies teachers create a curriculum highlighting key aspects of government shutdowns.

Teacher Resources/ Lesson Plans

STANDARDS:

  • National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS)- Standard 6 Power, Authority and Governance: Social studies programs should include experiences that provide for the study of how people create, interact with, and change structures of power, authority, and governance.”
  • High School Ohio Social Studies Standards: American Government Theme: Students examine the Founding Documents which form the basis for the United States of America and how the American people govern themselves at national, state and local levels of government is the basis for this course. Students may also impact issues addressed by governments through service learning and senior projects.
  • Eighth Grade Standard ROLES AND SYSTEMS OF GOVERNMENT Content Statements: 22. The U.S. Constitution established a federal republic, providing a framework for a national government with elected representatives, separation of powers, and checks and balances. 23. The U.S. Constitution protects citizens’ rights by limiting the powers of government.

    Questions for discussion:
  • What ways can a government shutdown affect the average person?
  • What persons or citizens might be affected most by the government shutdown?
  • Should Congress be held accountable for the government shutdown?


Teacher Resources/Sample Lessons

Teaching Toolkit: 9 Resources for Discussing the Government Shutdown
https://doingsocialstudies.com/2018/01/22/teaching-toolkit-9-resources-for-discussing-the-government-shutdown/

2013 Government Shutdown – Database of K-12 Resources
https://civics.sites.unc.edu/files/2013/11/Shutdown-Lesson_10.pdf

Five Ways to Teach the Shutdown
https://learning.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/10/10/five-ways-to-teach-the-shutdown/

Government Shutdown: A Teacher’s Guide

http://www.pbs.org/newshour/extra/daily-videos/government-shutdown-a-teachers-guide/

Need-to-Know: Government Shutdown!

http://www.pbs.org/newshour/extra/2013/09/need-know-government-shutdown/

The Government Shutdown and K-12 Education: Your Guide

http://blogs.edweek.org/edweek/campaign-k-12/2018/01/government_shutdown_education_your_guide.html


References/Resources

Government Shutdowns Are Rare When One Party Controls White House, Congress. President Trump is On His Third
https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/politics/2018/12/22/government-shutdowns-rare-except-under-president-donald-trump/2396942002/

Government Shutdowns in the United States

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Government_shutdowns_in_the_United_States

In Pictures: The Latest Government Shutdown

https://www.cnn.com/2018/12/22/politics/gallery/government-shutdown-december-2018/index.html

Here is Every Previous Government Shutdown, Why They Happened and how They Ended

https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/wonk/wp/2013/09/25/here-is-every-previous-government-shutdown-why-they-happened-and-how-they-ended/?utm_term=.86403a7e84a3

Schumer Demands Trump ‘Abandon the Wall’ as DC Faces Shutdown Stalemate.
https://www.foxnews.com/politics/schumer-demands-trump-abandon-the-wall-as-dc-faces-shutdown-stalemate

Government Shutdown 2018

https://www.politico.com/latest-news-updates/government-shutdown-2018

What Happens During a Government Shutdown? 7 Things You Should Know

https://www.foxnews.com/politics/what-happens-during-a-government-shutdown-7-things-you-should-know

Why the Government Shutdown Actually Costs Money?

https://www.politico.com/agenda/story/2018/01/21/why-the-government-shutdown-actually-costs-money-000624

The government shutdown is here. How does it affect you?

https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/politics/2018/12/21/government-shutdown-how-does-affect-you-what-closed/2391079002/

Government Shutdown 2018 and 2013 Explained

https://www.thebalance.com/government-shutdown-3305683

 

6 Comments

  1. I remember when the government shut down a few years ago, everyone was in a huge panic as we didn’t know what it meant or what would happen. This topic needs to be covered in schools in case it ever happens again.

  2. This topic is something that should be discussed more often so society can understand. This is not a topic that I knew happened with government until I got older to comprehend what was going on.

  3. Government shutdown affects everyone, especially the people with everyday jobs and bad pay. This may have already happened but will it happen again? My feeling is yes, undoubtedly it will happen again.

  4. I not only think this needs to be taught in class. But there should be a push for a contingency plan to be set into place in which there are preventative measures for avoiding a government shutdown.

  5. I like that this article starts of by saying in order to the function properly, the people need to know about their governmental rights. I like understanding when a government shutdown happens. I enjoy that this article goes in depth into the lives of the people that shutdowns affect.

  6. Government shutdowns can affect average Joes by delaying passport renewals and the recruitment of police officers. My uncle works for the government I’m not sure exactly what he does but I know he was majorly affected and couldn’t work for a while. 

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