The Nineteenth Amendment and Women’s Struggle for Equality

American World War II wartime poster- by J. Howard Miller (1943)

By Dr. David Childs, Ph.D.
Northern Kentucky University

Nineteenth Amendment

The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.


Introduction
Today many young people take the fact that they have the right to vote for granted. In a recent poll by the Education Week Research Center from September 2018, only 28% of youth ages 18-24 said they would definitely vote in the upcoming election. This seems to point to the fact that many young people (particularly women and minorities) are not fully aware of the many hardships their forebears underwent to win the right to vote. This article offers a brief discussion of the history of the nineteenth amendment that granted women voting rights. The article also offers some educational resources that may assist teachers with lessons surrounding the nineteenth amendment and women’s suffrage.

A Brief History of Women’s Suffrage
The United States Constitution (Adopted in 1789) left the question of women’s suffrage undefined. As a result, all states at that time denied women the right to vote with the exception of New Jersey, who eventually revoked the right in 1807. Afterwards, there were small pockets of organizations and movements dedicated to women’s rights, but the movement became officially organized at the Seneca Falls Convention in New York in 1848. From that time on, the women within the suffrage movement fought a long hard battle at the state and national level to receive the right to vote.

The Minor V. Happersett Supreme Court case of 1875 unanimously ruled that the Fourteenth Amendment did not grant women the right to vote. Up until that time there were an increasing number of states that granted women the right to vote, however there were still some that disenfranchised women. The Nineteenth Amendment essentially overruled Minor V. Happersett. Senator Aaron A. Sargent originally introduced the amendment to congress in 1878, however it was not submitted to the states for ratification until 1919, 41 years later. Not all states supported the amendment, only three fourths of the states ratified it. In short, in comparison to the history of the United States, women were only recently granted the right to vote. Please explore the lessons and resources below and also respond to the discussions at the conclusion of the article.       

Lesson Plans
Lesson Plan: 19th Amendment
19th Amendment- NEA Lesson
Women’s Suffrage | Teaching Tolerance
Woman Suffrage and the 19th Amendment- Teaching History.org
The Road to Suffrage
The 19th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution gave women the right to vote in 1920
Teaching the 19th Amendment- Lesson Plans
Women’s Suffrage: Their Rights and Nothing Less
When Life Gives You Beyoncé, Teach with Lemonade
Women of Color and Feminism: A History Lesson and Way Forward

Teacher Resources
The History of Women’s Suffrage
Primary Documents in American History- 19th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution
The Woman Suffrage Movement- National Women’s History Museum
Woman Suffrage Timeline (1840-1920)
Facts About the Suffragettes- National Geographic for Kids
Annenberg Classroom – Nineteenth Amendment
Make Women’s History Month Come to Life with Comics!

Video Resources
Women’s Suffrage-PBS
Sound Smart: Women’s Suffrage | History Channel
Women’s Suffrage: Crash Course US History #31
Courage in Corsets- PBS
Women’s Suffrage- History Channel
Fighting for the Vote- Women’s Suffrage in America Part 1
Secrets Of A Suffragette (Women’s Rights Documentary) | Timeline

References
Youth Politics: A Result of a National Survey
Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution
Common Interpretation- The Nineteenth Amendment
The Nineteenth Amendment In 1920 women secured the right to vote
Suffragette Movement
10 things you (probably) didn’t know about the Suffragettes
Sojourner Truth 1797-1883
Why Black Feminism & Womanism?
Womanism
Womanist – Alice Walker’s Term for Black Feminist – ThoughtCo

Discussion Questions
1. What are contemporary ways that certain groups may be disenfranchised in today’s society?
2. Have you incorporated lessons on women’s rights and/or voting into your curriculum?
3. What ways do you feel women’s right are connected to civics and citizenship education?
4. In what ways can teaching youth about the history of voting rights in the US motivate them to participate more in the democratic process?
5. How might one teach the difference between mainstream feminism and black feminism? Why was it necessary to have two distinct movements?

46 Comments

  1. this is a very important article to read because I agree that this generation is less interested in the demographic process such as voting. even I tend to avoid voting because i am not that knowledgeable on everything that happens and don’t see the point in voting when i am not well enough informed. this makes it even more important to teach this to students but in an interesting way because when students are not interested then they don’t try to bother listening and learning. this article give lots of interesting ideas of how to teach the students and have them interested in it.

    • The poster for this article grabbed my attention within a second, because yes we CAN do it, we can go vote and we should go vote but people don’t. Just like you said, the women before us fought long and hard for us females to have this right and we are wasting it. I understand not being educated enough to vote, but there is a solution to that: go get educated. It is important for our future that we vote, and we need to teach our students that as well. I really loved the Beyonce Lemonade Lesson Plan you have posted, it would be great for high school students.

  2. I completely agree that young teens take voting for granted we take a lot of things for granted. I have always wondered if it was because we have not known another way of life. When being taught about this in high school it definitely made me appreciate the world we live in today a bit more because I do have the right to vote and because women are getting closer to being seen as equal. I never really thought of this as being a major point in history because it was not talked about in detail as much as it should have been.

  3. I agree this generation lacks the interest in voting. The idea was not pressed heavily onto their minds by their superiors. Whether that action was intentional or not, minorities and women should know how their rights have evolved over time. The fact that women were only given equal voting rights to men a mere 100 years ago is astounding. Looking at recent legislature in the last five years even shows a edging of imposition into women’s rights today. The lawmakers throughout America’s history have preoccupied themselves with keeping their seat in office and keeping the threats of women and minorities from voting against their opinionated proposals.

    • I knew that it was not commonplace for the younger generation to be interested in voting and taking an active role in our country’s political scene. However, I did not know that the exact static was only 28% of young (18-24 year old voters) were going to vote in the next election. That percentage is even lower than I expected it to be! Personally, I always make sure that I vote in elections. When I was in 3rd and 4th grade, I actually lived in Seneca Falls, New York. In fact, my elementary school was named after Elizabeth Cady Stanton. We frequently visited museums and other monuments that paid tribute to the women who were involved in the Women’s Rights Movement. This contributes to my participation in voting because I knew how women hard women in history fought for this right. I feel that as a future social studies educator, it will be my responsibility to make sure that all of my students know what hardships led to different groups gaining the right to vote and that they should take advantage of this privilege.

  4. From personal experience, I knew that many younger individuals do not have interest in exercising their right to vote. The statistical analysis of this actual number, however, is shocking. I think the younger generation has very strong opinions and are open to entering very politically charged arguments to defend these opinions, so it is suspiring they are not willing to defend their opinions in a voting booth.
    Having both mainstream feminism and Black feminism is important because Black women are the greater disenfranchised group and they need their own platform. Mainstream feminism has a poor reputation and is commonly called “white feminism” by women of color. This is due to the very limited views and lack of intersectionality in mainstream feminism. The issue with white feminism is the they use their privilege and platform to propagate their own issues, while usually not being inclusive of WOC or trans women. This is why there is a need for Black feminism.

  5. I can say that I am one of those young adults that takes advantage of the right to vote. I have never understood politics and I have never voted because I feel that I am uneducated. Reading this article makes me feel encouraged to get more involved and appreciate the hardships that women went through. Using similar lesson plans in my classroom would help students similar to me, in that they don’t know what their voting for. Students should be interested at a young age in politics and it all starts with educators teaching the important stuff like this.

  6. I agree that voting is Important, but none of the young teens go out and vote. It is extremely important to get them out there to vote because people worked so hard just to get the privilege to vote. I think we don’t vote because we aren’t knowledgeable about the things going on. The reason I hadn’t voted this year is because I have no clue what our country is going through. I feel like my life isn’t changing very much no matter who is president, so I just don’t care. I think that if there is teaching about what is going on now rather than what happened a thousand years ago, people would want to vote more.

  7. I think that we can all agree on the importance of voting; it is our right as American citizens. The challenging aspect of voting is the fact that we are not always aware of what we are voting for; yes we know titles such as President, Vice-President, but who are these people and what are their beliefs and values? What can or can’t they do for our country. Because our society does not always have these details that would enable us to make an educated opinion/vote, I can truly understand why the voting population numbers are below where they should be. As noted in the article, women have earned their right to vote in this country, however I feel that we owe it not only to women but all Americans to provide them with the knowledge needed in order to make an educated vote. I really do think if more Americans knew what they were voting for, not just titles, the amount of people wanting and willing to do so would increase.

  8. I’m fortunate in the fact that I attended a school where this was taught and my family has always urged the right to vote on me so unfortunately the statistics, while still astonishing, don’t shock me. It has always puzzled me that our younger generation doesn’t seem to care all that much about voting, as they have some extreme opinions. I can see though they may not feel they should vote as they don’t think they are informed adequately to make such a decision, like many previous commenters have said, and I believe that is why this is occurring. Though perhaps with more knowledge on how this is a recent development that everyone has the right to vote and how important that is, may cause them to be more likely to exercise that right and take the time to research what is going on in the world.

  9. This is a very interesting article to read because I am on of those people in this generation that doesn’t have an interest in the demographic process such as voting. Even though I am registered to vote I tend to avoid voting because I am not that educated on the issues that happen and don’t really see the point in voting. I wish schools would teach students the importance of voting. I’m glad I read this article. It gave me lots of perspective on why it should be important to vote. Maybe it even changed my mind.

  10. The right to vote is so important and needs to be participated in by all people. The fact that only 28% of youths vote is bewildering to me. This is a luxury most countries don’t offer, let alone offer it to women. I don’t care if you even vote for one of the major runners in the elections just put a name down and turn it in. This is a right that all Americans should practice whenever they can. No body has an excuse not to vote.

  11. Susan B. Anthony once said “There will never be complete equality until women themselves help to make the laws and elect the lawmakers”. What these young females do not understand is that currently, there are males making laws that obtain to women and women’s bodies. Women not only need to run for more political roles but, also need to get out and vote to put those women in office. As of February of 2019 there were six females that had officially announced their run for presidential candidacy. The next presidential race might be the one where the women make their mark in history and have a huge amount of women voters.

  12. After reading the article, and the responses, I have to definitely say that I agree with everyone when they say that present-day youth take advantage of voting. I also think that in school, we are told that we should vote and we are told that it is important but we aren’t given the resources to do so. By this, I mean that, at least where I went to school, we weren’t encouraged to watch debates and we never talked “hot issues” and what different sides of the issue were. Since I graduated high school, I have been more involved with politics and more up to date with elections.

  13. Arguably, voting is one of the most underrated rights that an American citizen has. Voting is such a privilege, but people seem to not understand that. It’s consistently taken for granted in every election, and it’s a disservice to the men and women from all walks of life who fought for women to have the right to vote. Every vote does matter, no matter what anyone may think. Go out and exercise your RIGHT to vote!!

  14. The importance of a vote is not only shown in who gets elected, but also in the respect shown for our past. women fought for the right to vote, and the got it. This in itself is a win, but it isn’t the end. It is incredibly important for people to understand that women are still actively fighting for their rights. Just because the battle was won does not mean the war is over.

  15. The importance of a vote is not only shown in who gets elected, but also in the respect shown for our past. women fought for the right to vote, and the got it. This in itself is a win, but it isn’t the end. I recently watched a movie about Ruth Bader Ginsburg titled “on the basis of sex”, this movie showed her fighting against discrimination of all people based on sex and sexual stereotypes. It is incredibly important for people to understand that women are still actively fighting for their rights. Just because the battle was won does not mean the war is over.

  16. The topic discussed in this article I have seen and heard this taking place. Many people around my age do not use their right to vote. It is sad to think that this right that women fought for and how special it is and people neglect it. Many years ago women would have loved to have a say and vote, they fought to have the right. Now all women have the right to vote and many still don’t. They don’t realize how important this freedom is that we have to be able to voice our opinions.

  17. Voting plays a huge role in our world. Even if you don’t think so, every single vote counts. You have the right to be heard and to vote for who you want. I myself has actually never voted because I simply do not have a very good understanding of politics but this article has helped me see how important voting is. This article made me want to become more educated and to always vote from here on out!

  18. Voting is one of the biggest rights that we have as US citizens. I was always taught the importance both in school and in my household. The day I turned 18 was also the day I resisted to vote. personally, I feel my generation is very vocal with their beliefs and it shocks me to know that under 30% of young adults actually exercise this awesome, empowering right we have. Your vote is important no matter your age, sex, or race and it really does matter!

  19. It is very sad that many young people, especially women and minorities, do not exercise their right to vote. I feel that not many people fully understand the importance of voting in elections. As educators, it is our responsibility to teach our students about their rights so that they feel confident in their decisions. I don’t think that there is enough focus on voting rights in schools and that is why many people do not choose to vote. In this past presidential election, many people I know did not vote because they did not like either candidate, which is really sad. It is important that we educate our students and other US citizens about their rights and help them understand the importance.

  20. The lack of interest in voting in this generation is totally true. I even find myself not voting because I simply don’t know enough about politics to feel confidant in my vote. I think that young people today don’t really pay attention to politics or take any interest in and political voting at all. I think its important for this generation or U.S. citizens to take politics seriously since we are now contributing to the voting population.

  21. I believe that this article is important because it discusses the lack of interest of this generation in voting. I personally know a lot of people who aren’t signed up to vote. I believe that its important for the people of this generation to participate in voting. I think everyone should go out and vote, so they can make a difference in the world they live in.

  22. I found this article to be very interesting. As a young woman, I agree that people in my generation take voting for granted. I know I do. I have never voted in a presidential election and I am 23 years old. I have not voted not because I don’t care, because I certainly do. I just always felt that I am not educated on the election enough to say who I want to run the country. However, this article has changed my perspective. We do take for granted the right to vote. Once upon a time we weren’t allowed and I think that it is important to voice our opinions and show that our opinion matters and is heard.

  23. I have always been told that voting plays a huge role and that every vote counts; however, I feel that young people take advantage of this idea. I believe part of the reason is because many of us are not interested in politics and/or do not understand it. Therefore, we simply brush it off to the side as if it doesn’t affect us. I think the other reason is that we are not given the resources in school to understand it. Yes, we have social studies classes. But many of those teachers tell us it’s important but not how to be involved such as encouraging us to watch the political debates.

  24. Modern day women, especially women in their 20’s often times take for granted the right to vote. Growing up, I always remember my mom being so strong in the opinion that women should always vote because if we don’t act on this, we might lose that right. I think this made me so excited to finally be able to vote when I became able. Voting always makes me feel so thankful that the women before me were strong enough to stand up to the men. Not only do I make sure to vote in every election I can, I also encourage all of my friends to also vote. If we aren’t careful, this right could be taken from us in the blink of an eye.

  25. From firsthand experiences I can say that I haven’t talked to many women in my age group that is willing to take part in the upcoming election. It could possibly be misinformation that their vote doesn’t count or simply they’re just disinterested. My mother and grandmother always voted in city council events and presidential elections. They pushed me to do the same. I hope to spread the message to other women my age to vote. I wonder if more women knew the story and the statistics behind exercising their right to vote. It’s a little scary to see that not many of the younger generation is voting.

  26. This article is very interesting. I always knew that women did not use their rights to vote often but I never knew that it was such a low number. People think that they are not knowledgeable enough to vote and make a decision that could effect our country. I hope as a teacher that I am able to help shape the minds of my students into thinking that voting is one of the most important rights that we have as citizens and that it should be used. I know that just by teaching my students about their rights it will be one step towards making that small percentage get higher.

  27. I agree that we (my generation) take the right to vote for granted. I personally take that right for granted and do not participate in elections as much as I should. By teaching of the struggles and sacrifices made for women’s suffrage, I would hope that students would recognize their right and exercise it more frequently when they become adults. Although it may be easy to provide a brief overview as this article has to students, this is a time when biographies/autobiographies could be incorporated into the lesson to demonstrate personal sacrifices made. Being able to make a personal connection to individuals within history could help students identify more with this period in history. I have spent a lot of time researching gender inequalities throughout our country and this movement could be a great way to tie in current events that were caused or affected by women’s suffrage movement.

  28. It’s crazy to think that women having the right to vote has just so recently became a reality. And it is difficult to grasp that many young women (and men for that matter) in this day do not take advantage of their legal right to vote. I think the younger generations are oblivious to what our ancestors had to go through to get the privileges that we have today, It is unfortunate that our generations are not getting as involved as they should be.

  29. I find it interesting that younger generations lack interest in voting as these generations are often the most outspoken relating to their opinions of policies and elected officials. I also find this interesting because the younger generations are the individuals who will be impacted most by policy changes and the legislature that will take effect in the coming years. As a young woman and a self-proclaimed feminist, I have made a considerable and consistent effort to understand the Suffrage movement and how women continue to fight for equality. To obtain the right to vote was a huge milestone for women’s equality and the steps we make towards ensuring women are viewed as equals to our male counterparts will continue to be a prominent movement of our time.

  30. It is crazy to think that only 100 years ago, women gained the right to vote. In a time where such feminism takes place in rallies and marches, I wonder what the first women protesting for their right to vote would think of the events that are held today for women’s rights. Many rights are often taken for granted, one of them being the right to vote, and many of them go ignored. If there was anything that my parents did force their political opinions on me about, it was on the honor and responsibility of being an informed voter. When so many of those in my generation don’t understand how wonderful our right to vote is, I am often perplexed. This is a way that the government hears my voice; women marched for my right to do so and countless have fought and died protecting my rights.

  31. Being able to vote is a very important right to American citizens. However, I agree a lot of young people, including myself, do not take advantage of this right. I am honestly slightly ashamed that when the first time I was allowed to vote I did not. Although in history class it is taught to us the struggles women and minorities went through to get be able to vote, I think young people are generally selfish and lazy to actually go out and vote, they do not see the true importance it has. We need to be educated on just how important our vote is, and that what we say really does matter. If young people understood the true importance of voting and that our voices actually may be heard we would participate in voting more. I know for me personally after this past few elections I will go out and make my voice heard by voting.

  32. The 19th amendment is women’s right to vote, it gave women like a chance to have the freedom to speak my mind and to find a place for our voices to be heard. To me, I am a very independent woman and I like to speak my mind when it comes to things, I don’t believe are morally right or equal. When it comes to voting I love to give my say and that’s why I get so passionate at these things because this year I had my vote taken away from me by the state of Kentucky until 2020 because I changed my political party. I don’t believe that something like that is okay because I should still have to right to vote in national elections but because I changed my party I am not allowed to vote until January 1, 2020.

  33. Before reading this article, I knew that the percentage of young people that voted was low, but I had no idea how low. The following statistic given in the article, “September 2018, only 28% of youth ages 18-24 said they would definitely vote in the upcoming election”, astounded me. As soon as I turned 18 I registered myself to vote. I truly don’t think that young people today full understand how lucky they are to be given the right to vote. Generations before us battled for so long to receive this right and today, most us have taken it for granted. I believe that the importance and background regarding the right to vote needs to be discussed more in our classrooms at a younger age. I also think that more young people would exercise their right to vote if they were given the opportunity to register to vote at their schools.

  34. It breaks my heart that only 28% of people age 18-24 intend on voting in the upcoming election. They really have no idea how important it is to vote and how lucky we are! 100 years ago we wouldn’t be able to vote! Once again I love all of the resources that are provided below for us teachers. I would love to spend a day teaching on women’s rights and the progression of the right to vote.

  35. It is easy to take any right for granted when it is readily available to you, but it’s important to understand why it is now commonplace instead of being taboo in society. Even today, one would think that many people are unaware of their right to vote. When you look at polling numbers, it suggests that people are becoming less active politically. The right to vote, regardless of sex or race, was fought for so that future generations could exercise their rights along those that once opposed it. So, students should be encouraged in every capacity to voice their opinions and vote on what they believe is important to them.

  36. I have been taught in years past how important it is to utilize our right to vote. In high school, my government teacher would stress how we should all vote if we had the ability to because we do make a difference. I think it’s interesting to see that only 28% of citizens 18-24 would vote on the upcoming election. Since we are so young, I feel as though a lot of people see voting as a waste of time. We are the future for society, and we can make a difference. I also think, like the article states, that many young people take voting for granted. Although I remember learning about the hardships women and minorities underwent to win the right to vote, I think sometimes we forget about this history lesson or don’t see the seriousness behind it.
    I enjoy how this article shifts to talking about women’s suffrage and then gives numerous resources to lesson plans dealing with the nineteenth amendment and women’s right to vote. As future educators, it’s important to know the significance of this history lesson and understand how to teach this topic. If we can educate our students of the importance of using our votes in the future, the percentage of youth likely to vote may increase. Women faced many obstacles when gaining the right to vote because the Constitution left women’s suffrage undefined. The suffrage movement had to fight for 41 years, battling at the state and national level to receive suffrage. This shows how long it took women to gain this right, and in comparison, to all of American history, women only recently won their right to vote. All of the resources, lesson plans, and references provide me with many tools to successfully teach and highlight this important history lesson. This will allow my students to appreciate their right to vote.

  37. It’s a strange to think about how voting went from something that people died for, to something that a large percentage of the population doesn’t care about. I think that it is important to educate people on why voting is important. A lot of people fought and died for us to have the right to vote and it is important to not let that go to waste by not voting. By educating people on movements like the woman’s suffrage movement, we can hopefully get more people to realize how important voting is and get them to go out and vote.

  38. After reading that only 28% of people aged 18-24 are definiting voting in the upcoming election is scary but yet believable. I also believe that the lack of education in schools about how voting works, the overall process and what your vote means to this country will change a lot of peoples view on politics and voting. I think to teach the youth that more about the women fight for our right to vote and showing/telling them the hard facts that women did for our country, for example, some women died, rather than how they just struggled and protested.

  39. I always find it so interesting that it was fought SO HARD to vote, yet many people don’t. I definitely believe that voting today is taken advantage of. However, I will never be able to comprehend why women and minorities were not allowed to vote. I understand that discrimination played a large role in this, but why does discrimination even exist? Ultimately, it does exist and the fact that it was fought so hard and so long for these groups to be granted the opportunity to vote is ridiculous. I definitely think that many people need to extend their knowledge on this topic because we all need to vote. Every persons vote matters and these women and minorities fought so hard to allow the opportunity for everyone to vote and many people still don’t.

  40. So many people fought for and against actions being taken for womens equality. Voting is so important nowadays, yet that right that we fought for a long time, isn’t utilized as much as it should be. My generation for sure takes voting for granted. To be honest, not trying to say our life is hard, but with everything we need to worry about in todays society, we don’t have time to be informed on important details that need to be understood in order to vote. I 100% don’t know what I voted last time, and kinda feel bad about it. Why did I even vote if I didn’t know what I was doing? We were always taught how important it is to vote, but I am a 21 year old female and can say that I don’t feel very comfortable voting, due to my lack of knowledge.

  41. The nineteenth amendment gave all citizens the right to vote, and it amazes me that not all women who are able to vote are actually exercising their civic responsibility. According to polls by the Education Week Research Center it states that only about 28% of youth between the ages of 18-24 say they will vote in the next election. If one were to look back on the Women’s Suffrage Movement and understand how many women of the time fought long and hard for years to gain women that right to vote I think more people would vote. They were treated unfairly, and it seems that with the decreasing number of women voting it projects that women today are not realizing how hard people fought for the future of women in the voting world. This article provided me with an abundance of articles, videos, and lessons that would be useful in the classroom to help teach Women’s Suffrage and the 19th Amendment. “The Road to Suffrage” lesson is a great and detailed lesson that would require the students to look at a timeline that led up to the ratification of the 19th amendment in 1920. This is a great activity for students to really understand from beginning to end how hard people fought and the whole process. I think too many people today are taking for granted the rights they have been given through the suffering of those who came before us. One could argue that with the way our government behaves today many people may have the “why bother” mentality. How can we get eligible voters today that they CAN make a difference?

  42. As a young woman myself I agree young people, especially women, take the right to vote for granted. After all of the women before us fought long and hard for the right to vote so many of us do not show our appreciation for their efforts by voting. After all of their efforts the least we could do is vote. I feel like the biggest reasons young people don’t vote are: 1. they don’t feel like they know enough about politics to vote and 2. they don’t feel like their vote will make a difference. We need to appreciate our right to vote, so many others don’t have the same right. Voting is one of the most important things you can do as an American.

  43. This article is very important because I feel like college students do not really care to vote. It is interesting to read how hard women in the past worked in order to get the right to vote and now that we have it I feel like it isn’t taken seriously. I always vote but I see why some don’t because it seems like even if we do vote we will not be taken seriously and it won’t make that much of a difference. As a college student I think we assume the world doesn’t think we are ready yet so therefore our vote would be unnecessary. I believe more college students should take voting more seriously.

  44. It is clear that there is still a fight for gender equality in this country and many other parts of the world for that matter. I believe the most interesting part of the article was the fact that the nineteenth amendment was not submitted for ratification until 41 years after introduction in 1878. It is a very obvious sign of the lack of care or urgency on the side of our government (men) in this country during that time. Women are by no means treated completely equal though I like to think some strides have been made. I do agree though that we do take for granted the fight of those in the past like women and African Americans for suffrage and just as a whole, appreciating our democracy. Unfortunately, it sometimes take events like war or 9/11 to reinstall that patriotic, ownership of the country and the rights we are given that others did not or still do not have.

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