Teaching about Miranda Rights in Social Studies Classrooms

Miranda Warning- https://www.dalesavage.com/police-dont-read-miranda-rights/

By Dr. David Childs, Ph.D.
Northern Kentucky University

When one is apprehended or detained by law enforcement in the United States, police officers are required to give the suspect a Miranda warning (Usually referred to as their Miranda Rights). Miranda rights are a notification that is to be given by an officer to a criminal suspect in police custody, advising them of certain rights they have as US citizens. The basic premise of the statement is that the individual that is in police custody can lawfully remain silent and refuse to answer any questions or provide any information to law enforcement officials. This is to prevent any information from being used against them in court unlawfully. The specific language for the Miranda warning varies between jurisdictions but has the same basic principles. For example, the warning may be stated as follows:

“You have the right to remain silent. Anything you say can be used against you in court. You have the right to talk to a lawyer for advice before we ask you any questions. You have the right to have a lawyer with you during questioning. If you cannot afford a lawyer, one will be appointed for you before any questioning if you wish. If you decide to answer questions now without a lawyer present, you have the right to stop answering at any time.”

Established in 1966 after the Miranda v. Arizona case, the Miranda warning is part of an effort to protect citizens’ fifth amendment rights, as well as their sixth amendment right to council from being violated by police officers. If law enforcement officials decline to read the suspect their rights, none of the evidence collected from the interrogation can be used against them in a court of law.

Many American citizens do not fully understand their Miranda rights, what they mean or the historical precedent behind them. Social studies classrooms can be great spaces to help youth understand what the Miranda warning is all about, and further understand their own rights in US society. Below we have included several links to lesson plans that teachers can use in their middle and high school classrooms to help shed more light on the subject.

Lesson Plans
Miranda v. Arizona (1966)
You Have Right to Remain Silent
Understanding and Applying the Miranda Decision
Educator Resources for Miranda Rights
Right to Remain Silent: Miranda v. Arizona
Lesson Plan: Miranda Warning
Resource Packet for Teachers Law Day 2016
Miranda and Teens
Confessions- Lesson Plan on Miranda Rights
Miranda Rights Lesson Plan
Your Right to Remain Silent: Miranda v. Arizona
Search The Learning Network Search The Right to Know Your Rights
Miranda V. Arizona (1966) Lesson
Miranda Rights- Lesson Template for James Madison Foundation

Other Teaching Resources
Miranda v. Arizona: The Rights to Justice
Teaching About Miranda warnings
The Right to Remain Silent: Miranda V. Arizona

What Are Your Miranda Rights?
Miranda Warning
Miranda Warning Overview
Fifth Amendment Miranda Rights
Miranda Rights: What Happens If the Police Don’t Read You Your Rights
The Miranda rights are established

Discussion Questions
1. To what extent did you understand your Miranda rights before reading this article?
2. Why do you think understanding Miranda rights is important for US citizens?
3. What are other ways that social studies and/or language arts teachers can address this topic in their classrooms?
4. What resources stood out to you above? Which do you find most interesting and helpful?


  1. Personally, I have always known my Miranda right because I watched Cops on TV all of the time growing up. I think it is important for people to know their rights but not as young as middle school. I think they are too young to be worried about getting in trouble with the law. I do think it is important to know other rights though like the right to vote, life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness, etc. It may be appropriate fro high school students to know if they plan on going into the Criminal Justice field. But it is criminals responsibility to know and find out their rights.

  2. Hello Briana. I really appreciate your thoughtful response here. That is a wonderful thing that you have grown up knowing your Miranda rights. I would just add that it is good for young people even at the elementary age to know their Miranda Rights. While there are many good police officers in our nation, there has been many cases where the rights of children have been violated. For example, Tamir Rice (A twelve year old African American male) was killed by police officers unlawfully. So I would say it may depend on the socioeconomic background and the neighborhood one is from. But in a democracy, the younger one knows their rights the better.

  3. Contrary to Briana, I think middle school would be the perfect age for children to learn their Miranda rights. With more and more juveniles turning to crime for whatever reason, they need to be aware of the rights they have as a juvenile, plus the rights they will have as they grow older since juveniles and adults have different rights. As previously stated, there are many wonderful officers in the country. However, there are also officers who lean into the typical media cop–racist, sexist, etc.
    Did you know that in the state of Kentucky, officers are required 0 hours of training in the academy about dealing with juveniles? In many other states, the required training is minimal. This could be why so many rights of children are violated. They need to know they have rights and be able to use them should the issue arise.

  4. I have always heard my Miranda right because I watching Law and Order: SVU on TV. I think it is super important for people to know their rights no matter what age you are. If you are a person living in this country you need to know what your rights are. Growing up in the intercity I know a bunch of people who were arrested at young ages for many different reasons. If we as a society are expected to obey the laws than we should be expected to know our rights to make sure that no one of power abuses that. You never know where life will take you until you get there, so be educated.

  5. I have always heard my Miranda right from watching Law and Order: SVU on TV. I think it is super important for people to know their rights no matter what ages you are. If you are a person living in this country you need to know what your rights are. Growing up in the intercity, I know a bunch of people who were arrested at young ages for many different reasons. If we as a society are expected to obey the laws than we should be expected to know our rights to make sure that no one of power abuses that. You never know where life will take you until you get there, so be educated.

  6. The question isn’t “should rights be taught?” The question should be “why shouldn’t they be taught?” There is only one reasonable answer to the latter question: because people are easier to control if they don’t know any better. The earlier, in a child’s development, you teach them the more confident they will be in later stages, on the subject matter. Teaching rights in school is important, but this kind of education should start at home. Parents, in conjunction with educators, need to help prepare these kids for life outside of childhood. This is key to prevent future citizenry from being taken advantage of by rogue officials. We must not forget, due to our retribution based criminal justice system, the possibility for wrongful prosecution is more likely now than previously. As such, people need the tools to protect themselves and we have a responsibility to pass those tools onto the next generation.

  7. Before reading this article, I knew the Miranda rights included “you have the right to remain silent” and I also knew that law enforcement officials are required to recite these rights to you. After reading this article, I learned that any evidence obtained during the interrogation cannot be used in court. I think that Miranda rights are important for US citizens to understand because if the situation arises that they are being detained, being read these rights may not make sense to them in the moment. US citizens should know that they do, in fact, have the right to remain silent and that they should exercise this right as they see fit. Teachers can address this topic in the classroom by teaching the Miranda rights in conjunction with the US Amendments. By doing so, the students can relate this legislature to real life experiences and hopefully this will allow for the information to be easily recalled if they ever need it. The lesson plan “You have the right to remain silent” seems like a great resource. The questions and answers are helpful because, again, they relate legislation to real life scenarios.

  8. After reading the article, I also agree with Kaitlin as far as teaching middle schoolers what their rights are, especially the Miranda Rights. Teaching them these rights are important because, like Kaitlin and Bri both mentioned above, this knowledge helps better prepare if they are in certain situations. I firmly believe that by having them learn these rights, we are able to protect the innocent from saying something that makes them look guilty of an unrelated crime. With knowing rights, comes a possible advantage if there is contact with an enforcement officer who is sexist, racist, etc. The advantage is that you will have knowledge of these rights and you will be able to execute them, preventing the possibility of digging yourself deeper for no reason.

  9. Considering how important Miranda Rights are to our justice system in this country, they should absolutely be taught in schools. I was never taught what they were when I was younger, and the only exposure I had to them was in movies and TV shows. I never fully understood what they were until a few years ago. As citizens of the United States, it is important for all of us to understand what rights we do and do not have, Miranda Rights included. Schools are a perfect place for educators to inform their students about these rights, particularly in a social studies class.

  10. I never was taught what Miranda rights were or if i was it was not enough for me to know exactly what it meant. when you hear the right is can be self explanatory. however, i was never taught why cops were required to say it every time they make and arrest. this is something that I feel is important to teach and have them know about. I found it interesting just reading the article and it can make a interesting lesson. this is something that really goes well in a social studies class because not only are they learning about the Miranda rights but you can teach them about all the rights they have as an american.

  11. I knew because of TV and my mother “You have the right to remain silent” and that law enforcement officials must say this when someone is being detained. However, it didn’t really go into any further depth than that and only recently do I know it. I think its crucial for children’s educators and their parents to help prepare them for life now, not just so they can know it for the future if something should happen but because there have been many cases where children’s rights have been violated and these cases are likely to continue. These Miranda rights are very important to understand because if someone does end up being detained, many of those times the person will freak out and may not be able to focus on what is being said to them. A social studies class is a perfect place for an education of this, its history and other rights we citizens have.

  12. I was taught my Miranda rights because my father was a delinquent, so I caught on pretty quick. But I have also known people that did not know their rights and incriminated either themselves or someone else. It is important to know your rights with speaking to law enforcement. They are allowed to extract information from you, but you can refuse and wait for fair representation which can save someone’s life.

  13. I felt this was a very insightful article especially for future teachers. Unfortunately,this is something I never thought about teaching in school and I am happy that the seed was planted for my future teaching endeavors. Children regardless of age should know about their Miranda rights. Just as you mentioned earlier Dr. Child’s, children have been targeted in our society at the hands of select police officers. It is our responsibility as teachers to prepare our children for the real world.

  14. Teaching the Miranda Rights in school should be a mandatory part of the curriculum. Children are taught the pledge of allegiance at a young age, shouldn’t they also know their rights? Memorization is not a foreign concept to most students, even children.With all the things they are taught to memorize, shouldn’t one that could be useful and impact their future be required? As a kid I had to memorize the five great lakes. This information has never been useful to me. It is never too young to teach children about their rights. Whether that be personal space, consent, or Miranda rights.

  15. Before I read this article, I did not know what Miranda rights were. I have heard cops read off the rights to people when watching cop shows, but I never knew that’s what they were. I think it would be important to teach this in a classroom setting because everyone should know what there rights are and what amendment it falls under.

  16. I think most people now have heard about Miranda rights even though we may not know them by that name because of shows like Law and Order. Knowing these rights is very important because as other people have said knowing these rights could prevent an innocent person from looking guilty. It is also important to know the laws so that a citizen cannot be taken advantage of by others. I think that it is very important that educators help the children they teach skills that will help them in their daily lives. It is also important to know that the sooner we teach and reinforce this knowledge the more likely the kids will remember this knowledge when they need it. This article proved to be valuable because it made me think about a perspective that I had not considered which was a great experience.

  17. I believe that this is very beneficial for early education. Not only do I think it should be taught early in school but, also reinforced throughout middle and high school. There is a significant amount of injustice that happens everyday and the more knowledge the people have the less likely the injustice will occur.

  18. Before reading this article I had an idea of the Miranda rights but I don’t think I fully understood them. I think it is super important for every citizen to know these rights because it is what can help to protect them. I think that students should really be taught what they are and what it means because just hearing them read to you doesn’t really give you a full understanding of what it actually means and if a person is confused they are more likely to get themselves into more trouble. The lesson plans provided were really helpful and I will most likely use them in my classroom. The one that I found interesting was the Miranda and Teens lesson plan.

  19. I think the Miranda Rights is not talked about enough in the classrooms! In fact, I don’t think I learned about them in school until I was in a government class in high school; no one should be taught informed of them that late into life. I think it’s important to educate kids about them as young as possible because many people still don’t understand what they are or how they can protect you in the court of law. It’s important for every citizen to know what their rights are because it’s your right as an American citizen to have them, so people should be able to use them.

  20. Growing up, my parents taught me the importance of knowing my Miranda Rights. They are the only reason I knew about them, and currently know them. I was never taught them in school, or even the background behind them (the Miranda v. Arizona case). When I become a teacher, I will be sure to educate my students in their rights if anything were to ever happen and they needed to know them. In a world like today, I believe it’s essential to know your rights – at any age. More knowledgeable citizens will hopefully result in less injustice in our society.

  21. I have always known my Miranda Rights ever since I was in elementary school. My uncle was a cop so he would always tell me about it. Knowing your rights is a huge thing and I think middle school is a perfect age to start learning about it. It is important for every citizen of our country to know and understand all that comes with your rights and to know how you can be protected when it comes to the law.

  22. The Miranda Rights can be easily implemented into a classroom when learning about the bill of rights. The Miranda Rights are something that most students have probably heard, atleast in part, on television. during the lesson you can discuss both the law that was broken and how the reading of their rights played a part in the arrest during the show they have seen. It is important for all citizens to understand their rights and this is an easy way to peak their interest in the discusion.

  23. I have always known my Miranda rights as I watch a lot of crime shows for example Cops. The only part of the Miranda Rights that I really listened to or thought was really important was, “You have the right to remain silent”, this is key to me because you do not have to answer the questions that the cops ask you in a time of stress or mental pressure. I think the Miranda rights need to be taught and also need to be shown. The problem is what age should it be taught, for me teaching the Miranda rights to children at a young age shows a sign of the direction the world is going which shouldn’t change the fact that it is going in a way that is completely different when I was a kid. I believe that kids who live in a lower class and or live in a wide range of race should be taught their Miranda rights at a younger age. Social study teachers can show examples of how people the past has affected the rights and show examples on how people could have and should have used their rights. Language arts teachers can show children the meaning behind the words that are listed, as some children may get confused.

  24. Before reading this article, I had minimum knowledge about Miranda Rights. Of course, I heard of Maranda Rights from TV shows but my parents never had a conversation with me explaining what Maranda Rights were. I believe that Maranda Rights are crucial and everyone should be knowledgeable about their rights that are guaranteed under the constitution. However, I believe people of color should especially be aware of their Maranda Rights; people of color are more likely to be stopped during traffic stops and are more susceptible to racial profiling. Simple knowledge of our guaranteed Maranda Rights could avoid jail time or costly fines for a person. Maranda Rights could easily be incorporated into a social studies lesson if the standards being covered involve the constitution and/or governance. I believe the resource that stood out the most to me is the origin of Maranda Rights. It’s important to know why Maranda Rights are put into place.

  25. 4. Teaching about Miranda Rights in Social Studies Classrooms
    Author: David Childs
    Response: With knowing rights, comes a possible advantage if there is contact with an enforcement officer who is sexist, racist,
    When it comes to knowing the miranda rights, there is automatically an advantage. You never know what situation you will be put in but if you ever do get put into a situation, you want to know the basis of what you can and cannot do in the state of law. This will help also because you never know what kind of officer you might run into, whether he/she being sexist, racist or any of that sort. I absolutely think that these set of rights should be taught in a classroom environment and everyone should have the right to know what situation they are in. when you think of the miranda rights, the first thing that pops into my head is “ you have the right to remain silent” but thats really the only thing I know because the officers in the TV shows don’t really go any further that that.

  26. Before reading this I knew and understood my Miranda rights because I watch lots of crime shows and had heard it on there. Its very Important for students to learn about their rights especially as young adults because people can take advantage of you if they don’t think you know what your rights are. If a student gets in trouble they need to be able to know what they are allowed to say and to be given. I think that it can be brought up in social studies classes when discussing current events especially issue like police brutality that are becoming large issues recently.

  27. I think it is important for students to learn what their Miranda Rights mean and what historical precedents created the warning given by police or other law enforcements. When teaching the Constitution or framework of American democracy, a teacher could include the historical precedents for Miranda Rights and connect them to the rights the students have as American citizens. This present day connection to the rights set during the early times of the United States can help students understand the significance of our Constitution on their lives today. The connection could also demonstrate the concept of innocence until proven guilty and other concepts connected to a democratic society. These connections can further attract students’ interest toward historical events or ideologies.

  28. Early grades social studies teachers could benefit their students by teaching about what it means to live in America and what rights we have as Americans. I would, of course, recommend modifying the lesson to be age appropriate. I also think that it is important to teach older students where Miranda Rights originated. It is one thing to know something but knowing the origination of why something is the way it is, makes it so much more meaningful. It is so important that we all know our rights’ as Americans. Being educated about our rights’ helps protect our future.

  29. Prior to reading this article, I had a basic idea of what Miranda rights were from watching tv shows and movies, however, I had never learned about them in an education setting. I think that as a US citizen, it is important for students to receive knowledge of their rights in society. The Miranda rights could be confusing for many US citizens. If the situation arises that they are being detained, they should know that they do, in fact, have the right to remain silent if they see fit. A social studies class is the perfect place to educate students about their rights and clarify any misconceptions they might have.

  30. Personally, I’ve known what my Miranda Rights were since I was young because I watched a lot of Law and Order: SVU on TV. However, if it were not for me watching shows like this (probably too often), I would not have known my Miranda Rights. I could be wrong, but I don’t recall ever being taught this in school. History class would be a great time to teach Miranda Rights and I think there are many fun ways that you could teach it. I believe this is basic knowledge that everyone should know because many good, innocent people still need to take advantage of their Fifth Amendment right.

  31. As social studies teachers, we should be striving to create active and knowledgable citizens. Teaching the Miranda Rights, their origin, and their purpose allows students to better understand how to behave as citizens and recognize when they are being targeted beyond what is fair. Today, there are many examples on social media of citizens evoking their rights in instances where law enforcement are being unlawful. Students should understand that their rights are just as important as any other citizen.

  32. I think that teaching our youth about their Miranda Rights is very important. I knew little to nothing about them before reading this article. Really all I knew is what is seen on TV and I think that many other people could also say the same. No one has ever explained them to me or gone over the meaning behind it. I think things like your rights should be something social studies teachers should definitely go over. It could save someone from either getting into a lot of trouble over it and overall, just a good thing to know.

  33. Before reading this article, I had a very good understanding of my Miranda rights. My father was a law enforcement officer for over 20 years, and he made sure his family had the best possible understanding of our rights and the law. I think understanding Miranda rights is very important for U.S. citizens because it allows them to be comfortable in a situation where they are taken into police custody. Some other ways that social studies and/or language arts teachers can address this topic in their classrooms are by helping the students understand every part of the right and by showing appropriate videos so the students can understand the rights being used in a good situation. I think that will help students fully comprehend their Miranda rights. A resource that stood out to me was the resource about what happens if police don’t read you your rights. All the resources were very helpful.

  34. Before reading this article I wasn’t too sure what Miranda Rights exactly were. To be honest, I had always just heard them on television shows and I have seen silly videos of people reciting them. In high school, I never remember learning about them and I think it would be beneficial to have a lesson about Miranda Rights. I think it’s very important to know your rights and what those rights consist of. I have never been in trouble with the law so I always felt like I never needed to know these rights. However, after reading this article I think it’s really important to inform students about these rights in order for them to be a more well-rounded and knowledgable citizen.

  35. I believe it is extremely important for all citizens to know and understand their rights, especially in potentially scary or overwhelming situations. I was first introduced to Miranda Rights because my family liked to watch crime shows, but I didn’t really know what they were or that there was a name for them. I was first introduced to them being called Miranda Rights in my eighth grade American History class. We went over the court case and connected it to our fifth and sixth amendment rights. Something like this could be very useful in a social studies classroom, that eighth grade lesson has stuck with me for all this time. I would want to strive to have the students make the connection between the rights and the amendments on their own and see for themselves how the Miranda Rights connect to the amendments. Hopefully something like this can help students remember their rights just like how my eighth grade American History teacher helped me remember them.

  36. I remember taking a criminal justice course in high school in which I was taught the Miranda rights and what my rights would be in a scenario like this. I think teaching it as young as elementary is a great idea. You are never too young to start learning about your rights as an American Citizen. I think that its extremely important for children, young adults, and even adults to know what their rights are so if they are in a scenario in which they are being arrested, they know what to expect and how to handle the situation. There are a lot of juveniles today that probably didn’t know their rights in the time of the occurrence.

  37. It is definitely of the upmost importance that a person knows what Miranda rights are and understands them before hearing them for the first time from an officer. Usually when Miranda rights are given to a person being arrested they are given far too quickly for a person to understand if it is their first time hearing it. For this reason learning about Miranda rights in the social studies classroom is very important.

  38. What “schools do” matters in establishing students’ support for equal rights. The general idea, that social attitudes, such as prejudice, racism and sexism are learned and developed also leads to the idea that these attitudes may be unlearned (Zick et al. 2011 ). Relevant school climate factors suggest potential school differences that may foster the development of egalitarian attitudes toward others. Openness to discussion in a school may not only be important for its relation to civic knowledge (Schulz 2002 ; Schulz et al. 2010 ; Torney et al. 1975 ), it may also establish interest in informed voting and the ability to embrace conflict within democracy (Campbell 2008 ; Godfrey and Grayman 2014 ). In the light of the results in this chapter, open classroom discussion may also be important for fostering egalitarian attitudes among students. Van Hiel et al. ( 2004 ) suggested that educational interventions aimed at reducing the “need for closure”, a form of cognitive closed-mindedness, might reduce authoritarianism, a common predictor of prejudice. School interventions with teachers have been able to promote higher levels of open classroom discussion in the United States (Barr et al. 2015 ). However, these have not translated into a reduction of prejudice. Current results are encouraging, however, showing positive results for this line of reasoning across different contexts.

  39. I believe it is worth noting that children are not, nor should they be shielded from their rights and or future rights as citizen. Looking back, you’re required/strongly encouraged to participate in pledging to the flag prior to class starting. A major goal in my fifth grade social studies course was complete memorization of the preamble to the Constitution. I personally only knew a vague rendition of my rights, so, I find it surprising that in the event that an officer doesn’t read someone their rights all evidence is disposed of in a court of law. It is important for US citizens to know their rights because it prevents corruption and unlawful infringement on their freedom. I think a lesson plan based on student’s individual autonomy could enhance their esteem as a person and citizen. ‘Understanding and Applying the Miranda Decision’ is an essential lesson plan reference.

  40. Understanding Miranda rights is very important. I was unaware of the history of the Miranda case. It’s amazing that Miranda was stabbed and his possible attacker was not convicted due to keeping silent. I would love to see a follow up article about your rights when you are stopped by police before you are under arrest.

  41. When one is apprehended or detained by law enforcement in the United States, police officers are required to give the suspect a Miranda warning/rights. Miranda rights are a notification that is to be given by an officer to a criminal suspect in police custody, advising them of certain rights they have as US citizens. The basic premise of the statement is that the individual that is in police custody can lawfully remain silent and refuse to answer any questions or provide any information to law enforcement officials. Like me I’m sure some of us have only ever heard of Miranda rights in a short high school lesson or when watching a police show. Though I don’t believe students would understand what the Miranda rights are at the Elementary school level, I think it would be interesting at 5th grade level to introduce the Miranda rights when introducing students to the different amendment rights and their meaning behind it. I think it’s something to introduce early on though just because of all the resent activity with police officers that is shown in the media.

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