By Dr. David Childs, D.D., Ph.D.
Northern Kentucky University
The month of October can be very exciting! It is that time of year where fall is in full bloom, the days are not too hot and we all have a good excuse to drink hot chocolate, warm apple cider and pumpkin spice coffee. But most importantly, it is time for Halloween celebrations! From my childhood to this day I have always enjoyed Halloween. It is a time for warmer, cozier clothing, family fun and an excuse to eat lots of sweets. With the Halloween holiday approaching I thought that I would explore some of the history of the holiday and its origins, as well as provide some lesson plan resources for teachers.
Halloween (Sometimes less commonly called Hallowe’en) is a celebration observed in many countries on October 31, the eve of the Western Christian feast of All Saints’ Day. Historically the holiday has also been called All Halloween, All Hallows’ Eve, or All Saints’ Eve.
On the Christian liturgical calendar Halloween is the beginning of All Hallowtide, which is the time period dedicated to remembering the dead, including saints (hallows), martyrs, and all the faithful that have departed. Scholars disagree on some aspects of Halloween’s origins. One theory is that many of the holiday’s traditions have pagan roots. That it was influenced by Celtic harvest festivals, particularly the Gaelic festival called Samhain. Other scholars take it a bit further and suggest that the pagan festival “Samhain may have been Christianized as All Hallow’s Day, along with its eve, by the early Church.” Other historians hold a sort of opposite view and argue that Halloween began solely as a Christian holiday, being the vigil of All Hallow’s Day, to honor the dearly departed saints.
Halloween Comes to North America
The Irish and Scottish celebrated Halloween for centuries, and ultimately immigrants took many of the popular customs to North America in the 19th century. The holiday then spread throughout the US and by the mid twenty century Halloween evolved into what we know it today. Traditions that make up the Halloween in the US include “Halloween parties, dress up, trick-or-treating (or the related guising and souling from Europe), divination games, pin the tail on the donkey, pumpkin carving or turnip carving (More so in Europe historically), making jack-o’-lanterns, lighting bonfires, apple bobbing, playing pranks, visiting haunted attractions, telling ghost stories, and watching horror films. Less popular is the tradition where some Christians observe All Hallows’ Eve. In this tradition people attend church services and light candles on the graves of the dead saints and loved ones, a practice some theologians consider more pagan and less Christian. Historically, Christians have abstained from eating meat on All Hallows’ Eve, observing the tradition by eating certain vegetarian foods such as soul cakes, pancakes, potatoes or apples.
Halloween in the Classroom
When it comes to getting students involved in the holiday celebrations one perhaps has the idea that Halloween themes can only be integrated into elementary classrooms. However, there are activities that students of all ages can do for Halloween, because children as well as adults love to celebrate the season. Elementary teachers can engage in traditional activities such as wearing costumes to school, to trick or treating between various classrooms. Middle and high school students can also dress up, but can also engage in other more age appropriate activities such as creating short documentary horror films based on the subject matter being taught (I.e creating a science fiction or historic film with a horror theme or bringing Edgar Allen Poe’s work to life). Other ideas for older students include researching the witchcraft trials, unpacking historic myths like werewolves, witches or vampires, or baking Halloween treats for the class. Below we have included some lesson plans and teaching resources for teachers to help students explore engaging ways to celebrate the holiday.
Halloween Lesson Plans and Resources
Halloween Lesson Plans for Elementary
30 Halloween Activities for Kids: Creative and Fun Classroom Ideas!
40 Lesson Plans for Various Grade Levels
Elementary Halloween Activities for Various Subjects
Halloween Lesson Ideas from Eductaion World
Halloween Party Alternatives from UNICEF
6 Halloween Lesson Plans to Try in the Classroom
Halloween Activities for Middle Grades
High School Halloween Activity
Move Over Halloween — Here Comes Historical Figure Day
Vampires: Fact or Fiction?
Goosebumps in the Classroom: Now That You Have Their Attention
By Dr. David Childs, D.D., Ph.D.